The two countries have been mired in controversial negotiations for years and have yet to reach a comprehensive water-sharing agreement. The agreement between Egypt and Sudan, which complemented the previous agreement, gave Egypt the right to 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water per year and Sudan 18.5 billion cubic meters per year. The leaders of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan signed a cooperation agreement on the Great Renaissance Dam in 2015 to ease tensions. The agreement is expected to pave the way for continued diplomatic cooperation. Fundamental principles of the agreement include prioritizing downstream countries for electricity generated by electricity generated by the dam, a dispute resolution mechanism and compensation for damages. The Joint Decision to Give More Time to a Joint Agreement If Egypt and Sudan sign the Framework Cooperation Agreement, it will strengthen cooperation by strengthening existing agreements and initiatives under the Nile Basin Initiative. If they withdraw from the Nile Basin and insist on rejecting the new agreement, sub-basin agreements such as the Eastern Subsidiary Action Programme (ENSAP) will have a negative impact. The signing of the agreement was already scheduled at a ministerial meeting in 2007, but was delayed at Egypt`s request.  The upstream countries then decided at another ministerial meeting in Kinshasa in May 2009 to sign the agreement without all countries signing at the same time.
However, the signing was delayed and, at the next ministerial meeting held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, in April 2010, it was again asked to postpone the signature. The water safety article (Article 14 ter) raised particular objections from Egypt and Sudan. The article states that Member States will cooperate to „ensure that the water security of another country in the Nile basin is not significantly affected.” Egypt and Sudan want the article „Water security and the current uses and rights of other countries in the Nile basin” without qualification to be „significant”.  Egypt`s former Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, Mahmoud Abu-Zeid, sees the framework agreement as a positive start: „All have approved more than 95 per cent of the articles.”  An article on the protection and conservation of the basin and its ecosystem – such as the Sudd in Sudan – and an article requiring „prior consent” before the construction of new dams had also been unanimous in previous negotiations.  Representatives of the upstream countries said they were „tired of first obtaining Egypt`s permission before using Nile-river water for any development project such as irrigation,” as required by a first-time contract between Egypt and Great Britain in 1929.  The agreement does not contain fixed amounts of water for each riparian country. The agreement, once effective, will transform the NBI into a permanent commission for the Nile Basin. This has created disagreement among states upstream and downstream of the Nile over what should be included in the 2010 Watershed Cooperation Framework Agreement, as Egypt and Sudan have suspended their participation in the Nile Basin Initiative for the past five years.
Nile Basin Initiative has two complementary programs: Progress of Shared Vision and Subsidiary Action Programs. The first is to create an environment conducive to cooperation and development in the Nile Basin through a series of basin activities, including negotiations on the framework cooperation agreement. This agreement will give a legal mandate to a permanent institution that will replace the Nile Basin initiative. Article 15 of the Framework Cooperation Agreement creates a permanent institution called the Nile Basin Commission. It will be a supranational unit, with a broader authority and mandate to approve and approve national investment plans and programmes for investments in water resources that sovereign Member States intend to implement along the Nile.