Japanese Gentleman`s Agreement 1907

The increase in Japanese immigration, which was to replace some marginalized Chinese agricultural workers, has met with concerted opposition in California. To appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated the diplomatic agreement in which the Japanese government took on the responsibility of drastically limiting Japanese immigration, especially that of workers, so that Japanese children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. However, family migration could continue, as Japanese men, with sufficient savings, could bring wives through arranged marriages („pictured wives”), their parents and minor children. As a result, the Japanese-American population was more gender-friendly than other Asian-American communities, and continued to grow through natural increases, which led to increased pressure to end immigration and further reduce residents` rights. In 1908, Canadian Labour Minister Rodolphe Lemieux negotiated with Japanese Foreign Minister Tadasu Hayashi an agreement limiting Japanese immigration to Canada. In accordance with the gentlemen`s agreement, the Japanese government has agreed to voluntarily limit the number of Japanese immigrants arriving in Canada each year. Restrictions on Japanese immigration were deemed necessary following an influx of Japanese workers into British Columbia and a wave of anti-Asian workers in the province. More than 8,000 Japanese immigrants arrived in Canada in the first ten months of 1907, a dramatic increase over previous years. [1] Reports that the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway planned to import thousands more Japanese workers to work on the western part of the railway fuelled the anti-Asian atmosphere.

[2] Hostility towards the Asian population turned violent at an Asian Exclusion League rally in Vancouver in 1907. The crowd turned into an uncontrollable mob that targeted the city`s Chinese and Japanese residents and destroyed their personal belongings. [3] Japan has agreed to limit the number of passports it has provided to male workers and domestic workers to 400 per year. Four classes of immigrants would still be allowed to enter Canada: returning residents and their wives, children and parents; Immigrants employed by Japanese residents in Canada for personal and domestic services; Canadian government-approved workers; and contracted farm labour by Japanese landowners in Canada. Although no specific legislation has been adopted to enforce the quota, the agreement has resulted in a significant reduction in Japanese immigration. In the year following the agreement, only 495 Japanese immigrants arrived in Canada. [6] Concessions were agreed in a note that, a year later, consisted of six points. The agreement was followed by the admission of Japanese students to public schools. The adoption of the 1907 agreement spurred the arrival of „image marriages,” women who were closed remotely by photos.

[11] The creation of distant marital ties allowed women who wanted to emigrate to the United States to obtain a passport, and Japanese workers in America were able to earn a partner of their own nationality. [11] As a result of this provision, which helped to reduce the gender gap in the Community, from a ratio of 7 men per woman in 1910 to less than 2 to 1 in 1920, japan`s population continued to grow despite the immigration restrictions imposed by the agreement. The gentlemen`s agreement was never enshrined in a law passed by the U.S. Congress, but it was an informal agreement between the United States and Japan, which was implemented by unilateral action by President Roosevelt. It was repealed by the Immigration Act of 1924, which prohibits all Asians from immigrating to the United States. [12] Although the agreement limited the number of adult men who could enter Canada, it did not provide for any restrictions on the wives of Japanese immigrants.

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